As announced in my last blogpost, qdda is a tool that analyzes potential storage savings by scanning data and giving a deduplication, compression and thin provisioning estimate. The results are an indication whether a modern All-Flash Array (AFA) like Dell EMC XtremIO would be worth considering.
In this (lenghty) post I will go over the basics of qdda and run a few synthetic test scenarios to show what’s possible. The next posts will cover more advanced scenarios such as running against Oracle database data, multiple nodes and other exotic ones such as running against ZFS storage pools.
[ Warning: Lengthy technical content, Rated T, parental advisory required ]
Since the introduction of qdda I made lots of improvements, including:
- Solved performance issues when processing large datasets (more than 500GB) by using a non-indexed staging table which is merged later into the destination table. Scanning more data than a few hundred GB still requires some patience 🙂 I tested with a 4 TB dataset which was manageable. Expect to scale reasonably well up to 10-20TB, maybe more
- Added import function to allow merging data collected on various runs (or hosts) – maybe such as Exadata storage cells
- Change hash from CRC32 to MD5, as CRC32 turned out to create too many hash collisions on large datasets (see Wikipedia – Birthday problem) . QDDA now uses a truncated MD5 hash of 6 bytes. MD5 is actually 16 bytes (128 bits) but SQLite integers are limited to 8 bytes and are signed. Truncating to 6 bytes offers a good trade-off to performance, database size and accuracy on large datasets. It’s possible to recompile qdda with 7 bytes hashing if you really need it. Why not another hash algorithm? MD5 is known to be vulnerable to hash collision attacks? Sure, but MD5 outperforms the others and for my purpose has attacks are not relevant. A few hash collisions at very large data sets is manageable for this purpose so I think more than 6 bytes (48 bits) is not needed (let me know if you disagree)
- Added histogram reports that show the distribution of compress ratios and dedup counts
- Various minor bugfixes and changes in user interface
- Source dumped on GitHub. Now everyone can complain about my bad C++ coding style (or better, improve the code and submit a Pull Request)
I created a VMware Workstation VM running CentOS 6 minimal install, with a 16GiB bootdisk and 3 data disks of (4, 1 and 1 GiB). Disks are on a flash drive to speed up I/O. After first login, installed some tools and set up storage space.
# Install EPEL repository and 7zip archiver (needed later) yum install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm yum install p7zip # Install Outrun Extras repository (the YUM RPM repo where # I publish my tools and provide updates) # and install qdda and asmdisks yum install http://yum.outrun.nl/outrun-extras.rpm yum install qdda asmdisks # An overview of SCSI disks on the system asm disks Device SCSI Size Type Target /dev/sda [0:0:0:0] 16.0 GB dos - /dev/sdb [0:0:1:0] 4.0 GB blank - /dev/sdc [0:0:2:0] 1.0 GB blank - /dev/sdd [0:0:3:0] 1.0 GB blank - # Create a few scripts in /usr/local/bin: ls -ad /usr/local/bin/* /usr/local/bin/cacheflush /usr/local/bin/fsreclaim # cacheflush: syncs file system buffers and drops write cache # (flush dirty cache buffers to disk) # fsreclaim: simple script that writes a zeroed file into a # file system and then deletes it
*** WARNING ***
Use of “dd” can potentially destroy data. Use only within a disposable test environment (VM) or if you know what you are doing!
# Blanking the available devices just to be sure they don't contain any data dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M status=none of=/dev/sdb dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M status=none of=/dev/sdc dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M status=none of=/dev/sdd # Creating LVM volume groups, lvols and disk partitions # For the main tests we will use an LVM LV, but we also create 2 file systems # on deliberately mis-aligned disk partitions for one of the tests. # We use XFS as file system but place the journal on separate LVs to keep # the data as clean as possible parted /dev/sdb mklabel gpt parted /dev/sdb mkpart primary 1M 100% printf "%s\n" o n p 1 " " " " w | fdisk /dev/sdc printf "%s\n" o n p 1 " " " " w | fdisk /dev/sdd vgcreate -Ay data /dev/sdb1 lvcreate -Ay -nqdda -L1G data lvcreate -Ay -nlog0 -L16M data lvcreate -Ay -nlog1 -L16M data lvcreate -Ay -nlog2 -L16M data
Let’s run qdda against the blank test logical volume to see what a completely blank disk looks like:
qdda /dev/data/qdda qdda 1.7.2 - The Quick & Dirty Dedupe Analyzer File 01, 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) processed, 186/200 MB/s, 189 MB/s avg Merging 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) with 0 blocks (0 MiB) Indexing in 0.19 sec (687540 blocks/s, 5371 MiB/s), Joining in 0.05 sec (2787935 blocks/s, 21780 MiB/s) *** Details *** blocksize = 8 KiB total = 1024.00 MiB ( 131072 blocks) free = 1024.00 MiB ( 131072 blocks) used = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) unique = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) dupcount = 2 = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) dupcount > 2 = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) deduped = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) compressed (full) = 0.00 MiB ( 100.00 %) compressed (bucket) = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) *** Summary *** percentage used = 0.00 % percentage free = 100.00 % deduplication ratio = 0.00 compression ratio = 0.00 thin ratio = 0.00 combined = 0.00 raw capacity = 1024.00 MiB net capacity = 0.00 MiB
Because all blocks are blank, the output is not very interesting, it only shows 1GiB of unallocated data.
# Creating 3 filesystems with the journal on separate LV. mkfs.xfs -l logdev=/dev/data/log0 /dev/data/qdda mkfs.xfs -l logdev=/dev/data/log1 /dev/sdc1 mkfs.xfs -l logdev=/dev/data/log2 /dev/sdd1 # Adding the filesystems to fstab (for convenience), making # mountpoints and mount the stuff mkdir /dedup /d1 /d2 cat <<EOF >> /etc/fstab /dev/mapper/data-qdda /dedup xfs noatime,logdev=/dev/data/log0 0 0 /dev/sdd1 /d1 xfs noatime,logdev=/dev/data/log1 0 0 /dev/sdc1 /d2 xfs noatime,logdev=/dev/data/log2 0 0 EOF mount -a;df -P ... /dev/mapper/data-qdda 1048576 32928 1015648 4% /dedup /dev/sdd1 1044192 32928 1011264 4% /d1 /dev/sdc1 1044192 32928 1011264 4% /d2
These synthetic tests are intended to show how qdda works and run against artificially created data. Later we will run against actual OS and app devices Let’s run qdda again on the data device, holding only the structures of the freshly created XFS file system:
qdda /dev/data/qdda qdda 1.7.2 - The Quick & Dirty Dedupe Analyzer File 01, 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) processed, 187/200 MB/s, 189 MB/s avg Merging 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) with 0 blocks (0 MiB) Indexing in 0.19 sec (693825 blocks/s, 5420 MiB/s), Joining in 0.05 sec (2799427 blocks/s, 21870 MiB/s) *** Details *** blocksize = 8 KiB total = 1024.00 MiB ( 131072 blocks) free = 1023.92 MiB ( 131062 blocks) used = 0.08 MiB ( 10 blocks) unique = 0.05 MiB ( 7 blocks) dupcount = 2 = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) dupcount > 2 = 0.01 MiB ( 1 blocks) deduped = 0.06 MiB ( 8 blocks) buckets 2k = 0.02 MiB ( 8 buckets) compressed (full) = 0.00 MiB ( 97.85 %) compressed (bucket) = 0.02 MiB ( 2 blocks) *** Summary *** percentage used = 0.01 % percentage free = 99.99 % deduplication ratio = 1.25 compression ratio = 4.00 thin ratio = 13107.20 combined = 65536.00 raw capacity = 1024.00 MiB net capacity = 0.02 MiB
You can see that out of 1GiB (131072 8K blocks), 10 blocks have been written to hold XFS data structures. 7 blocks are unique and 1 block appears more than once, and even more than twice. A very small dedupe effect kicks in already, XFS has 10 blocks in use but after deduplication it would only consume 7 blocks.
XFS metadata seems to use only small parts of 8K blocks, because all of the 7 (deduped) blocks can be compressed into less than 2K and we can fit 4 2K buckets in an 8K block, bringing the compression ratio to 4:1 or 4.00 (the best you can get on XtremIO with 8K blocks – more on this later). If we would just run LZ4 compression against the blocks then the compression ratio would be very high: 7 blocks (57344 bytes) get compressed into less than 10 KB. qdda rounds down the MB number so it reports 0.00, but shows compression of 97.85%, so the compressed bytes would be roughly 57344*(1-0.9785) = 1233 bytes (inspecting the SQLite database reveals that the sum of compressed bytes = 1406 but at such small values you get some rounding errors).
The optimization ratios for dedupe, compression and thin are unrealistic for the same reason (rounding errors due to very low amount of blocks). But we need to keep in mind that XFS roughly uses 10 or so blocks for metadata (it will start to consume more if you write files to the file system).
Let’s write some random data to the file system. We will create a file with random data first as we need it again later on.
dd if=/dev/urandom bs=1M count=100 of=/var/tmp/random100 cp /var/tmp/random100 /dedup/
If you run qdda now against the logical volume, you would see that nothing has yet been written to the file system (a small bit is written to the log). I tried running “sync” but it did not help. You can unmount/mount the file system but that’s not practical. The cause is that the Linux kernel keeps written data in write buffers. The solution is using the drop_caches special file as listed in my cacheflush script (familiar name BTW 😉
cacheflush qdda /dev/data/qdda qdda 1.7.2 - The Quick & Dirty Dedupe Analyzer File 01, 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) processed, 186/200 MB/s, 188 MB/s avg Merging 131072 blocks (1024 MiB) with 0 blocks (0 MiB) Indexing in 0.24 sec (548526 blocks/s, 4285 MiB/s), Joining in 0.08 sec (1678882 blocks/s, 13116 MiB/s) *** Details *** blocksize = 8 KiB total = 1024.00 MiB ( 131072 blocks) free = 923.92 MiB ( 118262 blocks) used = 100.08 MiB ( 12810 blocks) unique = 100.05 MiB ( 12807 blocks) dupcount = 2 = 0.00 MiB ( 0 blocks) dupcount > 2 = 0.01 MiB ( 1 blocks) deduped = 100.06 MiB ( 12808 blocks) buckets 2k = 0.02 MiB ( 8 buckets) buckets 8k = 100.00 MiB ( 12800 buckets) compressed (full) = 100.00 MiB ( 0.06 %) compressed (bucket) = 100.02 MiB ( 12802 blocks) *** Summary *** percentage used = 9.77 % percentage free = 90.23 % deduplication ratio = 1.00 compression ratio = 1.00 thin ratio = 10.23 combined = 10.24 raw capacity = 1024.00 MiB net capacity = 100.02 MiB
Now we see the random data which is 100% unique (as it’s random) consuming 100MiB or 12800 blocks. The additional 10 blocks (7 deduped) are still the ones for XFS metadata. We get more realistic values now for the ratios: random data does not compress so every 8K block needs a real 8K block to be stored. Percentage used is nearly 10% (100MiB/1024MiB).
Let’s write a zeroed file to the file system:
dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=100 of=/dedup/zero100 cacheflush
Running the qdda tool again gives the EXACT same result as shown above (therefore not shown again). Good to know: Zero blocks in a file actually get reported by qdda as “free” (a real AFA like XtremIO would not consume real space either for zeroed file content – the effect of thin aka virtual provisioning).
Note: From here I will cut irrelevant output and commands, ignore file system metadata bias and only focus on the stuff that matters.
What if we write blocks that have already been written once? Let’s write half of the random file again to a new file (in such a way that this new 50MB is similar to data already written):
dd if=/var/tmp/random100 bs=1M count=50 of=/dedup/random50 qdda /dev/data/qdda free = 873.92 MiB ( 111862 blocks) used = 150.08 MiB ( 19210 blocks) unique = 50.05 MiB ( 6407 blocks) dupcount = 2 = 50.00 MiB ( 6400 blocks) dupcount > 2 = 0.01 MiB ( 1 blocks) deduped = 100.06 MiB ( 12808 blocks)
Now 150MiB in the file system is non-zero. After deduplication we see that 50% is unique (2nd half of the first random file) and 50% is duplicated twice (first half of random file which is written twice). Deduped capacity is 100MiB.
If we remove the first 100MiB random file (and the zeroed file) then you would expect the deduped capacity drops to 50MiB:
rm /dedup/random100 /dedup/zero100 qdda /dev/data/qdda free = 873.92 MiB ( 111862 blocks) used = 150.08 MiB ( 19210 blocks) unique = 50.05 MiB ( 6407 blocks) dupcount = 2 = 50.00 MiB ( 6400 blocks) dupcount > 2 = 0.01 MiB ( 1 blocks) deduped = 100.06 MiB ( 12808 blocks)
Nothing changed, but we deleted 100MiB random data? This is the result of the file system just marking the data as deleted and available for overwriting. An All-Flash Array (AFA) has no way of knowing that blocks with randomish data is not used anymore, so it’s listed as allocated. If you repeat such a process over and over again then due to fragmentation, eventually the required capacity will increase until no free space is listed anymore. How could we reclaim capacity? There are two ways:
- Overwriting free blocks with zeroes, or
- Somehow telling the AFA that the blocks are not needed anymore (usually called something like trim, fstrim, unmap etc such as implemented by VMware VAAI).
We don’t have a real AFA so we need to use method 1. Let’s use the “fsreclaim” script I wrote before. It writes a zeroed file called “reclaim” that fills up the filesystem and then deletes it again (note this is for test purposes only – in production this could lead to file system full notices and other problems).
fsreclaim /dedup qdda /dev/data/qdda free = 973.92 MiB ( 124662 blocks) used = 50.08 MiB ( 6410 blocks) deduped = 50.06 MiB ( 6408 blocks)
Reclaimed 50MiB by writing zeroes. Let’s see if we can reclaim all capacity after deleting all files:
rm /dedup/random50 fsreclaim /dedup qdda /dev/data/qdda free = 1023.92 MiB ( 131062 blocks) used = 0.08 MiB ( 10 blocks) deduped = 0.06 MiB ( 8 blocks)
Back to the original values. Nice!
In the next post I will cover more advanced scenarios such as looking at data compression, different block sizes, the effect of wrong alignment and looking deeper into the qdda inner workings.
This post first appeared on Dirty Cache by Bart Sjerps. Copyright © 2011 – 2017. All rights reserved. Not to be reproduced for commercial purposes without written permission.